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                According to Five Islamic Schools of Law

                               (Part I)

                 By: 'Allamah Muhammad Jawad Maghniyyah

              Translated from the Arabic by Mujahid Husayn

       Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the 'pillars' of the

Islamic faith. No proof is required to establish its being obligatory

(wajib) and one denying it goes out of the fold of Islam, because it is

obvious like salat, and in respect of anything so evidently established

both the learned and the unlettered, the elderly and the young, all stand

on an equal footing.

        It was declared an obligatory duty (fard ) in the second year of

the Hijrah upon each and every mukallaf (one capable of carrying out

religious duties, i.e. a sane adult) and breaking it (iftar) is not

permissible except for any of the following reasons:

        1. Hayd and nifas: The schools concur that fasting is not valid

for women during menstruation and puerperal bleeding.

        2. Illness: The schools differ here. The Imamis observe: Fasting

is not valid if it would cause illness or aggravate it, or intensify the

pain, or delay recovery, because illness entails harm (darar) and causing

harm is prohibited (muharram). Moreover, a prohibition concerning an

'ibadah (a rite of worship) invalidates it. Hence if a person fasts in

such a condition, his fast is not valid (sahih). A predominant likelihood

of its resulting in illness or its aggravation is sufficient for

refraining from fasting. As to excessive weakness, it is not a

justification for iftar as long as it is generally bearable. Hence the

extenuating cause is illness, not weakness, emaciation or strain, because

every duty involves hard- ship and discomfort.

        The four Sunni schools state: If one who is fasting (sa'im) falls

ill, or fears the aggravation of his illness, or delay in recovery, he has

the option to fast or refrain. Iftar is not incumbent upon him; it is a

relaxation and not an obligation in this situation. But where there is

likelihood of death or loss of any of the senses, iftar is obligatory for

him and his fasting is not valid.

        3. A woman in the final stage of pregnancy and nursing mothers.

        The four schools say: If a pregnant or nursing woman fears harm

for her own health or that of her child, her fasting is valid though it is

permissible for her to refrain from fasting. If she opts for iftar, the

schools concur that she is bound to perform its qada' later. They differ

regarding its substitute (fidyah) and atonement (kaffarah). In this regard

the Hanafis observe: It is not at all wajib. The Malikis are of the

opinion that it is wajib for a nursing woman, not for a pregnant one. The

Hanbalis and the Shafi'is say: Fidyah is wajib upon a pregnant and a

nursing woman only if they fear danger for the child; but if they fear

harm for their own health as well as that of the child, they are bound to

perform the qada' only without being required to give fidyah. the fidyah

for each day is one mudd, which amounts to feeding one needy person


        The Imamis state: If a pregnant woman nearing childbirth or the

child of a nursing mother may suffer harm, both of them ought to break

their fast and it is not valid for them to continue fasting due to the

impermissibility of harm. They concur that both are to perform the qada'

as well as give fidyah, equaling one mudd, if the harm is feared for the

child. But if the harm is feared only for her own person, some among them

observe: She is bound to perform qada' but not to give fidyah, others say:

She is bound to perform qada' and give fidyah as well.

        4. Travel, provided the conditions necessary for salat al-qasr, as

mentioned earlier, are fulfilled as per the opinion of each school. The

four Sunni schools add a further condition to these, which is that the

journey should commence before dawn and the traveler should have reached

the point from where salat becomes qasr before dawn. Hence if he commences

the journey after the setting in of dawn, it is haram for him to break the

fast, and if he breaks it, its qada' will be wajib upon him without a

kaffarah. The Shafi'is add another condition, which is that the traveler

should not be one who generally travels continuously, such as a driver.

Thus if he travels habitually, he is not entitled to break the fast. In

the opinion of the four Sunni schools, breaking the fast is optional and

not compulsory. Therefore, a traveler who fulfills all the conditions has

the option of fasting or iftar. This is despite the observation of the

Hanafis that performing salat as qasr during journey is compulsory and not


        The Imamis say: If the conditions required for praying qasr are

fulfilled for a traveler, his fast is not acceptable. Therefore, if he

fasts, he will have to perform the qada' without being liable to kaffarah.

This is if he starts his journey before midday, but if he starts it at

midday or later, he will keep his fast and in the event of his breaking it

will be liable to the kaffarah of one who deliberately breaks his fast.

And if a traveler reaches his hometown, or a place where he intends to

stay for at least ten days, before midday without performing any act that

breaks the fast, it is wajib upon him to continue fasting, and in the

event of his breaking it he will be like one who deliberately breaks his


        5. There is consensus among all the schools that one suffering

from a malady of acute thirst can break his fast, and if he can carry out

its qada' later, it will be wajib upon him without any kaffarah, in the

opinion of the four schools. In the opinion of the Imamis, he should give

a mudd by way of kaffarah. The schools differ in regard to acute hunger,

as to whether it is one of the causes permitting iftar, like thirst. The

four schools say: Hunger and thirst are similar and both make iftar

permissible. The Imamis state: Hunger is not a cause permitting iftar

except where it is expected to cause illness.

        6. Old people, men and women, in late years of life for whom

fasting is harmful and difficult, can break their fast, but are required

to give fidyah by feeding a miskeen for each fast day omitted: similarly a

sick person who does not hope to recover during the whole year. The

schools concur upon this rule except the Hanbalis, who say: Fidyah is

mustahabb and not wajib.

        7. The Imamis state: Fasting is not wajib upon one in a swoon,

even if it occurs only for a part of the day, unless where he has formed

the niyyah of fasting before it and recovers subsequently, whereat he will

continue his fast.

Disappearance of the Excuse:

        If the excuse permitting iftar ceases such as on recovery of a

sick person, maturing of a child, homecoming of a traveler, or termination

of the menses --it is mustahabb in the view of the Imamis and the Shafi'is

to refrain (imsak) from things that break the fast (muftirat) as a token

of respect. The Hanbalis and the Hanafis consider imsak as wajib, but

Malikis consider it neither wajib nor mustahabb.

Conditions (Shurut) of Fasting:

        As mentioned earlier, fasting in the month of Ramadan is wajib for

each and every mukallaf. Every sane adult (al-baligh al-'aqil) is

considered mukallaf. Hence fasting is neither wajib upon an insane person

in the state of insanity nor is it valid if he observes it. As to a child,

it is not wajib upon him, though valid if observed by a mumayyiz. Also

essential for the validity of the fast are Islam and niyyah (intention).

Therefore, as per consensus, neither the fast of a non-Muslim nor the

imsak of one who has not formed the niyyah is acceptable. This is apart

from the afore-mentioned conditions of freedom from menses, puerperal

bleeding, illness and travel.

        As to a person in an intoxicated or unconscious state, the

Shafi'is observe: His fast is not valid if he is not in his senses for the

whole period of the fast. But if he is in his senses for a part of this

period, his fast is valid, although the unconscious person is liable to

its qada', whatever the circumstances, irrespective of whether his

unconsciousness is self-induced or forced upon him. But the qada' is not

wajib upon an intoxicated person unless he is personally responsible for

his state. The Malikis state: The fast is not valid if the state of

unconsciousness or intoxication persists for the whole or most of the day

from dawn to sunset. But if it covers a half of the day or less and he was

in possession of his senses at the time of making niyyah and did make it,

becoming unconscious or intoxicated later, qada' is not wajib upon him.

The time of making niyyah for the fast in their opinion extends from

sunset to dawn.

        According to the Hanafis, an unconscious person is exactly like an

insane one in this respect, and their opinion regarding the latter is that

if the insanity lasts through the whole month of Ramadan, qada' is not

wajib upon him, and if it coves half of the month, he will fast for the

remaining half and perform the qada' of the fasts missed due to insanity.

The Hanbalis observe: Qada' is wajib upon a person in a state of

unconsciousness as well as one in a state of intoxication, irrespective of

whether these states are self-induced or forced upon them. In the opinion

of the Imamis, qada' is only wajib upon a person in an intoxicated state,

irrespective of its being self-induced or otherwise; it is not wajib

upon an unconscious person even if his loss of consciousness is brief.


        The muftirat are those things from which it is obligatory to

refrain during the fast, from dawn to sunset. They are:

        1. Eating and drinking (shurb) deliberately. Both invalidate the

fast and necessitate qada' in the opinion of all the schools, though they

differ as to whether kaffarah is also wajib. The Hanafis and the Imamis

require it, but not the Shafi'is and the Hanbalis. A person who eats and

drinks by an oversight is neither liable to qada' nor kaffarah, except in

the opinion of the Malikis, who only require its qada'.  Included in shurb

[ drinking] is inhaling tobacco (smoking)

        2. Sexual intercourse, when deliberate, invalidates the fast and

makes one liable to qada' and kaffarah, in the opinion of all the schools.

The kaffarah is the manumission of a slave, and if that is not possible,

fasting for two consecutive months; if even that is not possible, feeding

sixty poor persons. The Imamis and the Malikis allow an option between any

one of these; i.e. a mukallaf may choose between freeing a slave, fasting

or feeding the poor. The Shafi'is, Hanbalis and Hanafis impose kaffarah in

the above-mentioned order; i.e. releasing a slave is specifically wajib,

and in the event of incapacity fasting becomes wajib. If that too is not

possible, giving food to the poor becomes wajib.

        The lmamis state: All the three kaffarahs become wajib together if

the act breaking the fast (muftir) is itself haram, such as eating any-

thing usurped (maghsub), drinking wine, or fornicating. As to sexual

intercourse by oversight, it does not invalidate the fast in the opinion

of the Hanafis, Shafi's and Imamis, but it does according to the Hanbalis

and the Malikis.

        3. Seminal emission (masturbation; al-'istimna'): There is

consensus that it invalidates the fast if caused deliberately. The Hanbalis

say: If madhy is discharged due to repeated sensual glances and the like

the fast will become invalid. The four schools say: Seminal emission will

necessitate qada' without kaffarah.  The Imamis observe: It requires both

qada ' and kaffarah.

        4. Vomiting: It invalidates the fast if deliberate, and in the

opinion of the Imamis, Shafi'is and Malikis, also necessitates qada'. The

Hanafis state: Deliberate vomiting does not break the fast unless the

quantity vomited fills the mouth. Two views have been narrated from Imam

Ahmad. The schools concur that involuntary vomiting does not invalidate

the fast.

        5. Cupping (hijamah) is muftir only in the opinion of the

Hanbalis, who observe: The cupper and his patient both break the fast.

        6. Injection (of vitamines or other nutritions) invalidates the

fast and requires qada' in the opinion of all the schools. Imami legists

observe: It also requires kaffarah if taken without an emergency.

        7. Inhaling a dense cloud of suspended dust invalidates the fast

only in the opinion of the Imamis. They say: If a dense suspended dust,

such as flour or something of the kind, enters the body the fast is

rendered invalid, because it is something more substantial than an

injection or tobacco smoke which are also invalidating.

        8. Application of kohl invalidates the fast only in the opinion of

the Malikis, provided it is applied during the day and its taste is felt

in the throat.

        9. The intention to discontinue the fast: If a person intends to

discontinue his fast and then refrains from doing so, his fast is

considered invalid in the opinion of the lmamis and Hanbalis; not so in

the opinion of the other schools.

        10. Most Imamis state: Fully submerging the head, alone or

together with other parts of the body, under water invalidates the fast

and necessitates both qada' and kaffarah. The other schools consider it


        11. The Imamis observe: A person who deliberately remains in the

state of janabah after the dawn during the month of Ramadan, his fast will

be invalid and its qada' as well as kaffarah will be wajib upon him. The

remaining schools state- His fast remains valid and he is not liable to


        12. The Imamis observe: A person who deliberately ascribes some-

thing falsely to God or the Messenger (S) (i.e. if he speaks or writes

that God or the Messenger said so and so or ordered such and such a thing

while he is aware that it is not true), his fast will be invalid and he

will be liable to its qada' as well as a kaffarah. A group of Imami

legists go further by requiring of such a fabricator the kaffarah of

freeing a slave, fasting for two months, and feeding sixty poor persons.

This shows the ignorance or malice of those who say that the Imamis

consider it permissible to forge lies against God and His Messenger (S).


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                According to Five Islamic Schools of Law

                               (Part II)

                 By: 'Allamah Muhammad Jawad Maghniyyah

The Various Kinds of Fasts:

   The legists of various schools classify fasts into four

categories: Wajib, mustahabb (supererogatory), muharram (forbidden),

and makruh (reprehensible).

Obligatory fasts:

   All the schools concur that the wajib fasts are those of the month

of Ramadan, their qada', the expiatory fasts performed as kaffarah, and

those performed for fulfilling a vow. The Imamis add further two, related

to the Hajj and i'tikaf. We have already dealt in some detail with the

fast of Ramadan, its conditions and the things that invalidate it. Here we

intend to discuss its qada' and the kaffarah to which one who breaks it

becomes liable. Other types of obligatory fasts have been discussed under

the related chapters.

Qada' of the Ramadan Fasts:

   1. The schools concur that a person liable to the qada' of Ramadan

fasts is bound to perform it during the same year in which the fasts were

missed by him, i.e. the period between the past and the forth- coming

Ramadan. He is free to choose the days he intends to fast, excepting those

days on which fasting is prohibited (their discussion will soon follow).

However it is wajib upon him to immediately begin their qada' if the days

remaining for the next Ramadan are equal to the number of fasts missed in

the earlier Ramadan.

   2. If one capable of performing the qada' during the year

neglects it until the next Ramadan, he should fast during the current

Ramadan and then perform the qada' of the past year and also give a

kaffarah of one mudd (1) for each day in the opinion of all the schools

except the hanafi which requires him to perform only the qada' without any

kaffarah. And if he is unable to perform the qada' such as when his

illness continues throughout the period between the first and the second

Ramadan -he is neither required to perform its qada' nor required to give

kaffarah in the opinion of the four schools, while the Imamis say: He will

not be liable to qada' but is bound to give a mudd as kaffarah for each

fast day missed.

   3. If one is capable of performing the qada' during the year but

delays it with the intention of performing it just before the second

Ramadan, so that the qada' fasts are immediately followed by the next

Ramadan, and then a legitimate excuse prevents him from performing the

qada' before the arrival of Ramadan, in such a situation he will be liable

only to qada' not to kaffarah.

   4. One who breaks a Ramadan fast due to an excuse, and is capable

of later performing its qada' but fails to perform the qada' during his

lifetime, the Imamis observe: It is wajib upon his eldest child to perform

the qada' on his behalf. The Hanafis, Shafi'is, and Hanbalis state: A

sadaqah of a mudd for each fast missed will be given on his behalf.

According to the Malikis, his legal guardian (wali) will give sadaqah on

his behalf if he has so provided in the will: in the absence of a will it

is not wajib.

   5. In the opinion of the four schools, a person performing the

qada' of Ramadan can change his intention and break the fast both before

and after midday without being liable to any kaffarah provided there is

time for him to perform the qada' later.

   The Imamis observe: It is permissible for him to break this fast

before midday and not later, because continuation of the fast become

compulsory after the passing of the major part of its duration and the

time of altering the niyyah also expires. Hence if he acts contrarily and

breaks the fast after midday, he is liable to kaffarah by giving food to

ten poor persons; if he is incapable of doing that, he will fast for three


Fasts of Atonement (kaffarah):

   The fasts of atonement are of various kinds. Among them are

atonement fasts for involuntary homicide, fasts for atonement of a broken

oath or vow, and atonement fasts for zihar. These atonement fasts have

their own rules which are discussed in the related chapters. Here we shall

discuss the rules applicable to a person fasting by way of kaffarah for

not having observed the fast of Ramadan. The Shafi'is, Malikis and Hanafis

say: It is not permissible for a person upon whom fasting for two

consecutive months has become wajib consequent to deliberately breaking a

Ramadan fast to miss even a single fast during these two months, because

that would break their continuity. Hence, on his missing a fast, with or

without an excuse, he should fast anew for two months.

   The Hanbalis observe: If he misses a fast due to a legitimate

excuse, the continuity is not broken.

   The Imamis state: It is sufficient for the materialization of

continuity that he fast for a full month and then a day of the next month.

After that he can skip days and then continue from where he had left. But

if he misses a fast during the first month without any excuse, he is bound

to start anew; but if it is due to a lawful excuse, such as illness or

menstruation, the continuity is not broken and he/she will wait till the

excuse is removed and then resume the fasts. The Imamis further observe:

One who is unable to fast for two months, or release a slave or feed sixty

poor persons, has the option either to fast for 18 days or give whatever

he can as sadaqah. If even this is not possible, he may give alms or fast

to any extent possible. If none of these are possible, he should seek

forgiveness from God Almighty .

   The Shafi'is, Malikis and Hanafis state: If a person is unable to

offer any form of kaffarah, he will remain liable for it until he comes to

possess the capacity to offer it, and this is what the rules of the

Shari'ah require .

   The Hanbalis are of the opinion that if he is unable to give

kaffarah, his liability for the same disappears, and even in the event of

his becoming capable of it later, he will not be liable to anything. The

schools concur that the number of kaffarahs will be equal to the number of

causes entailing it. Hence a person who breaks two fasts will have to give

two kaffarahs. But if he eats, drinks or has sexual intercourse several

times in a single day, the Hanafis, Malikis and Shafi'is observe: The

number of kaffarahs will not increase if iftar occurs several times,

irrespective of its manner. The Hanbalis state: If in a single day there

occur several violations entailing kaffarah, if the person gives kaffarah

for the first violation of the fast before the perpetration of the second,

he should offer kaffarah for the latter violation as well, but if he has

not given kaffarah for the first violation before committing the second, a

single kaffarah suffices. According to the Imamis, if sexual intercourse

is repeated a number of times in a single day, the number of kaffarahs

will also increase proportionately, but if a person eats or drinks a

number of times in a single day, one kaffara will suffice.

Prohibited Fasts:

   All the schools except the Hanafi concur that fasting on the days

of 'Id al-Fitr and 'Id al-'Adha is prohibited (haram). The Hanafis

observe: Fasting on these two 'Ids is makruh to the extent of being haram

   The Imamis say: Fasting on the days of Tashriq is prohibited only

for those who are at Mina. The days of Tashriq are the eleventh, twelfth

and thirteenth of Dhu al-Hijjah.

   The Shafi'is are of the opinion that fasting is not valid on the

days of Tashriq both for those performing Hajj as well as others.

According to the Hanbalis, it is haram to fast on these days for those who


not perform Hajj, not for those performing it. The Hanafis observe: Fasting

on these days is makruh to the extent of being haram.

   The Malikis state: It is haram to fast on the eleventh and the

twelfth of Dhu al-Hujah for those who do not perform Hajj, not for those

performing it.

   All the schools excepting the Hanafi concur that it is not valid

for a woman to observe a supererogatory fast without her husband's consent

if her fast interferes with the fulfillment of any of his rights. The

Hanafis observe: A woman's fasting without the permission of her husband

is makruh, not haram.

The Doubtful Days:

   There is consensus among the schools that imsak is obligatory upon

one who does not fast on a "doubtful day" ( yawm al-shakk) that later

turns out to be a day of Ramadan, and he is liable to qada' later.

   Where one fasts on a doubtful day that is later known to have been

a day of Ramadan, they differ as to whether it suffices without requiring


   The Shafi'i, Maliki and Hanbali schools observe: This fast will

not suffice and its qada' is wajib upon him. In the opinion of the

Hanafis, it suffices and does not require qada '.

   Most Imamis state: Its qada' is not wajib upon him, except when he

had fasted with the niyyah of Ramadan.

Supererogatory Fasts:

   Fasting is considered mustahabb on all the days of the year except

those on which it has been prohibited. But there are days whose fast has

been specifically stressed and they include three days of each month,

preferably the 'moonlit' days (al-'ayyam al-bid), which are the

thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of each lunar month. Among them is

the day of 'Arafah (9th of Dhu al-Hijjah) Also emphasized are the fasts of

the months of Rajab and Sha'ban. Fasting on Mondays and Thursdays has also

been emphasized. There are other days as well which have been mentioned in

elaborate works. There is consensus among all the schools that fasting on

these days is mustahab.

Reprehensible (Makruh) Fasts:

   It is mentioned in al-Fiqh 'ala al-madhahib al-'arba'ah that it is

makruh to single out Fridays and Saturdays for fasting. So is fasting on

the day of Now Ruz (21st March) in the opinion of all the schools except

the Shafi'i, and fasting on the day or the two days just before the month

of Ramadan.

   It has been stated in Imami books on fiqh that it is makruh for a

guest to fast without the permission of his host, for a child to fast

without the permission of its father, and when there is doubt regarding

the new moon of Dhu al-Hijjah and the consequent possibility of the day

being that of 'Id.

Evidence of the New Moon:

   There is a general consensus among Muslims that a person who has

seen the new moon is himself bound to act in accordance with his

knowledge, whether it is the new moon of Ramadan or Shawwal. Hence it is

wajib upon one who has seen the former to fast even if all other people

don't (2), and to refrain from fasting on seeing the latter even if


else on the earth is fasting, irrespective of whether the observer is

'adil or not, man or woman. The schools differ regarding the following


   1. The Hanbalis, Malikis and Hanafis state: If the sighting

(ru'yah) of the new moon has been confirmed in a particular region, the

people of all other regions are bound by it regardless of the distance

between them; the difference of the horizon of the new moon is of no


   The Imamis and the Shafi'is observe: If the people of a particular

place see the new moon while those at another place don't, in the event of

these two places being closeby with respect to the horizon, the latter's

duty will be the same; but not if their horizons differ.

   2. If the new moon is seen during day, either before or after mid-

day, on 30th Sha'ban, will it be reckoned the last day of Sha'ban (in

which case, fasting on it will not be wajib) or the first of Ramadan (in

which case fasting is wajib)? Similarly, if the new moon is seen during

the day on the 30th of Ramadan, will it be reckoned a day of Ramadan or

that of Shawwal? In other words, will the day on which the new moon is

observed be reckoned as belonging to the past or to the forth- coming


   The Imamis, Shafi'is, Malikis and Hanafis observe: It belongs to

the past month and not to the forthcoming one. Accordingly, it is wajib to

fast on the next day if the new moon is seen at the end of Sha'ban, and to

refrain from fasting the next day if it is seen at the end of Ramadan.

   3. The schools concur that the new moon is confirmed if sighted,

as observed in this tradition of the Prophet (S) ('Fast on seeing the new

moon and stop fasting on seeing it'). They differ regarding the other

methods of confirming it. The Imamis observe: It is confirmed for both

Ramadan and Shawwal by tawatur (i.e. the testimony of a sufficiently large

number of people whose conspiring over a false claim is impossible), and

by the testimony of two just men, irrespective of whether the sky is

clear or cloudy and regardless of whether they belong to the same or two

different nearby towns, provided their descriptions of the new moon are

not contradictory. The evidence of children, fasiq men and those of

unknown character is not acceptable.

   The Hanafis differentiate between the new moons of Ramadan and

Shawwal; they state: The new moon of Ramadan is confirmed by the testimony

of a single man and a single woman, provided they are Muslim, sane and

'adil (just). The Shawwal new moon is not confirmed except by the testimony

of two men or a man and two women. This is when the sky is not clear. But

if the sky is clear -and there is no difference in this respect between the

new moon of Ramadan and Shawwal -it is not confirmed except by the

testimony of a considerable number of persons whose reports result in

certainty. In the opinion of the Shafi'is, the new moon of Ramadan and

Shawwal is confirmed by the testimony of a single witness provided he is

Muslim, sane, and 'adil. The sky's being clear or cloudy makes no

difference in this regard.

   According to the Malikis, the new moon of Ramadan and Shawwal is

not confirmed except by the testimony of two 'adil men, irrespective of

the sky's being cloudy or cloudless. The Hanbalis say: The new moon of

Ramadan is confirmed by the testimony of an 'adil man or woman, while that

of Shawwal is only confirmed by the testimony of two 'adil men.

   4. There is consensus among the schools, excepting the Hanafi,

that if no one claims to have seen the new moon of Ramadan, fasting will

be wajib after the thirtieth day allowing thirty days for Sha'ban.

   According to the Hanafis, fasting becomes wajib after the twenty-

ninth day of Sha'ban.

   This was with respect to the new moon of Ramadan. As to the new

moon of Shawwal, the Hanafis and the Malikis observe: If the sky is

cloudy, thirty days of Ramadan will be completed and iftar will be wajib

on the following day. But if the sky is clear, it is wajib to fast on the

day following the thirtieth day by rejecting the earlier testimony of

witnesses confirming the first of Ramadan regardless of their number.

   The Shafi'is consider iftar as wajib after thirty days even if the

setting in of Ramadan was confirmed by the evidence of a single witness,

irrespective of the sky's having been cloudy or clear.

   According to the Hanbalis, if the setting in of Ramadan was con-

firmed by the testimony of two 'adil men, iftar following the thirtieth

day is wajib, and if it was confirmed by the evidence of a single 'adl, it

is wajib to fast on the thirty-first day as well. In the opinion of the

Imamis, both Ramadan and Shawwal are confirmed after the completion of

thirty days regardless of the sky's being cloudy or clear, provided their

beginning was confirmed in a manner approved by the Shari'ah.



(1) Approximately 800 grams of wheat or something similar to it.

(2) But the Hanafis observe: If he testifies before a qadi who rejects his

testimony, it is wajib upon him to perform its qada' without liability to

kaffarah (al-Fiqh 'ala al-madhahib al-'arba'ah).

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