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                                Fasting,


                According to Five Islamic Schools of Law





                               (Part I)





                 By: 'Allamah Muhammad Jawad Maghniyyah


              Translated from the Arabic by Mujahid Husayn








       Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the 'pillars' of the


Islamic faith. No proof is required to establish its being obligatory


(wajib) and one denying it goes out of the fold of Islam, because it is


obvious like salat, and in respect of anything so evidently established


both the learned and the unlettered, the elderly and the young, all stand


on an equal footing.





        It was declared an obligatory duty (fard ) in the second year of


the Hijrah upon each and every mukallaf (one capable of carrying out


religious duties, i.e. a sane adult) and breaking it (iftar) is not


permissible except for any of the following reasons:





        1. Hayd and nifas: The schools concur that fasting is not valid


for women during menstruation and puerperal bleeding.





        2. Illness: The schools differ here. The Imamis observe: Fasting


is not valid if it would cause illness or aggravate it, or intensify the


pain, or delay recovery, because illness entails harm (darar) and causing


harm is prohibited (muharram). Moreover, a prohibition concerning an


'ibadah (a rite of worship) invalidates it. Hence if a person fasts in


such a condition, his fast is not valid (sahih). A predominant likelihood


of its resulting in illness or its aggravation is sufficient for


refraining from fasting. As to excessive weakness, it is not a


justification for iftar as long as it is generally bearable. Hence the


extenuating cause is illness, not weakness, emaciation or strain, because


every duty involves hard- ship and discomfort.





        The four Sunni schools state: If one who is fasting (sa'im) falls


ill, or fears the aggravation of his illness, or delay in recovery, he has


the option to fast or refrain. Iftar is not incumbent upon him; it is a


relaxation and not an obligation in this situation. But where there is


likelihood of death or loss of any of the senses, iftar is obligatory for


him and his fasting is not valid.





        3. A woman in the final stage of pregnancy and nursing mothers.





        The four schools say: If a pregnant or nursing woman fears harm


for her own health or that of her child, her fasting is valid though it is


permissible for her to refrain from fasting. If she opts for iftar, the


schools concur that she is bound to perform its qada' later. They differ


regarding its substitute (fidyah) and atonement (kaffarah). In this regard


the Hanafis observe: It is not at all wajib. The Malikis are of the


opinion that it is wajib for a nursing woman, not for a pregnant one. The


Hanbalis and the Shafi'is say: Fidyah is wajib upon a pregnant and a


nursing woman only if they fear danger for the child; but if they fear


harm for their own health as well as that of the child, they are bound to


perform the qada' only without being required to give fidyah. the fidyah


for each day is one mudd, which amounts to feeding one needy person


(miskeen).1





        The Imamis state: If a pregnant woman nearing childbirth or the


child of a nursing mother may suffer harm, both of them ought to break


their fast and it is not valid for them to continue fasting due to the


impermissibility of harm. They concur that both are to perform the qada'


as well as give fidyah, equaling one mudd, if the harm is feared for the


child. But if the harm is feared only for her own person, some among them


observe: She is bound to perform qada' but not to give fidyah, others say:


She is bound to perform qada' and give fidyah as well.





        4. Travel, provided the conditions necessary for salat al-qasr, as


mentioned earlier, are fulfilled as per the opinion of each school. The


four Sunni schools add a further condition to these, which is that the


journey should commence before dawn and the traveler should have reached


the point from where salat becomes qasr before dawn. Hence if he commences


the journey after the setting in of dawn, it is haram for him to break the


fast, and if he breaks it, its qada' will be wajib upon him without a


kaffarah. The Shafi'is add another condition, which is that the traveler


should not be one who generally travels continuously, such as a driver.


Thus if he travels habitually, he is not entitled to break the fast. In


the opinion of the four Sunni schools, breaking the fast is optional and


not compulsory. Therefore, a traveler who fulfills all the conditions has


the option of fasting or iftar. This is despite the observation of the


Hanafis that performing salat as qasr during journey is compulsory and not


Optional.





        The Imamis say: If the conditions required for praying qasr are


fulfilled for a traveler, his fast is not acceptable. Therefore, if he


fasts, he will have to perform the qada' without being liable to kaffarah.


This is if he starts his journey before midday, but if he starts it at


midday or later, he will keep his fast and in the event of his breaking it


will be liable to the kaffarah of one who deliberately breaks his fast.


And if a traveler reaches his hometown, or a place where he intends to


stay for at least ten days, before midday without performing any act that


breaks the fast, it is wajib upon him to continue fasting, and in the


event of his breaking it he will be like one who deliberately breaks his


fast.





        5. There is consensus among all the schools that one suffering


from a malady of acute thirst can break his fast, and if he can carry out


its qada' later, it will be wajib upon him without any kaffarah, in the


opinion of the four schools. In the opinion of the Imamis, he should give


a mudd by way of kaffarah. The schools differ in regard to acute hunger,


as to whether it is one of the causes permitting iftar, like thirst. The


four schools say: Hunger and thirst are similar and both make iftar


permissible. The Imamis state: Hunger is not a cause permitting iftar


except where it is expected to cause illness.





        6. Old people, men and women, in late years of life for whom


fasting is harmful and difficult, can break their fast, but are required


to give fidyah by feeding a miskeen for each fast day omitted: similarly a


sick person who does not hope to recover during the whole year. The


schools concur upon this rule except the Hanbalis, who say: Fidyah is


mustahabb and not wajib.





        7. The Imamis state: Fasting is not wajib upon one in a swoon,


even if it occurs only for a part of the day, unless where he has formed


the niyyah of fasting before it and recovers subsequently, whereat he will


continue his fast.





Disappearance of the Excuse:





        If the excuse permitting iftar ceases such as on recovery of a


sick person, maturing of a child, homecoming of a traveler, or termination


of the menses --it is mustahabb in the view of the Imamis and the Shafi'is


to refrain (imsak) from things that break the fast (muftirat) as a token


of respect. The Hanbalis and the Hanafis consider imsak as wajib, but


Malikis consider it neither wajib nor mustahabb.





Conditions (Shurut) of Fasting:





        As mentioned earlier, fasting in the month of Ramadan is wajib for


each and every mukallaf. Every sane adult (al-baligh al-'aqil) is


considered mukallaf. Hence fasting is neither wajib upon an insane person


in the state of insanity nor is it valid if he observes it. As to a child,


it is not wajib upon him, though valid if observed by a mumayyiz. Also


essential for the validity of the fast are Islam and niyyah (intention).


Therefore, as per consensus, neither the fast of a non-Muslim nor the


imsak of one who has not formed the niyyah is acceptable. This is apart


from the afore-mentioned conditions of freedom from menses, puerperal


bleeding, illness and travel.





        As to a person in an intoxicated or unconscious state, the


Shafi'is observe: His fast is not valid if he is not in his senses for the


whole period of the fast. But if he is in his senses for a part of this


period, his fast is valid, although the unconscious person is liable to


its qada', whatever the circumstances, irrespective of whether his


unconsciousness is self-induced or forced upon him. But the qada' is not


wajib upon an intoxicated person unless he is personally responsible for


his state. The Malikis state: The fast is not valid if the state of


unconsciousness or intoxication persists for the whole or most of the day


from dawn to sunset. But if it covers a half of the day or less and he was


in possession of his senses at the time of making niyyah and did make it,


becoming unconscious or intoxicated later, qada' is not wajib upon him.


The time of making niyyah for the fast in their opinion extends from


sunset to dawn.





        According to the Hanafis, an unconscious person is exactly like an


insane one in this respect, and their opinion regarding the latter is that


if the insanity lasts through the whole month of Ramadan, qada' is not


wajib upon him, and if it coves half of the month, he will fast for the


remaining half and perform the qada' of the fasts missed due to insanity.


The Hanbalis observe: Qada' is wajib upon a person in a state of


unconsciousness as well as one in a state of intoxication, irrespective of


whether these states are self-induced or forced upon them. In the opinion


of the Imamis, qada' is only wajib upon a person in an intoxicated state,


irrespective of its being self-induced or otherwise; it is not wajib


upon an unconscious person even if his loss of consciousness is brief.





Muftirat:





        The muftirat are those things from which it is obligatory to


refrain during the fast, from dawn to sunset. They are:





        1. Eating and drinking (shurb) deliberately. Both invalidate the


fast and necessitate qada' in the opinion of all the schools, though they


differ as to whether kaffarah is also wajib. The Hanafis and the Imamis


require it, but not the Shafi'is and the Hanbalis. A person who eats and


drinks by an oversight is neither liable to qada' nor kaffarah, except in


the opinion of the Malikis, who only require its qada'.  Included in shurb


[ drinking] is inhaling tobacco (smoking)





        2. Sexual intercourse, when deliberate, invalidates the fast and


makes one liable to qada' and kaffarah, in the opinion of all the schools.


The kaffarah is the manumission of a slave, and if that is not possible,


fasting for two consecutive months; if even that is not possible, feeding


sixty poor persons. The Imamis and the Malikis allow an option between any


one of these; i.e. a mukallaf may choose between freeing a slave, fasting


or feeding the poor. The Shafi'is, Hanbalis and Hanafis impose kaffarah in


the above-mentioned order; i.e. releasing a slave is specifically wajib,


and in the event of incapacity fasting becomes wajib. If that too is not


possible, giving food to the poor becomes wajib.





        The lmamis state: All the three kaffarahs become wajib together if


the act breaking the fast (muftir) is itself haram, such as eating any-


thing usurped (maghsub), drinking wine, or fornicating. As to sexual


intercourse by oversight, it does not invalidate the fast in the opinion


of the Hanafis, Shafi's and Imamis, but it does according to the Hanbalis


and the Malikis.





        3. Seminal emission (masturbation; al-'istimna'): There is


consensus that it invalidates the fast if caused deliberately. The Hanbalis


say: If madhy is discharged due to repeated sensual glances and the like


the fast will become invalid. The four schools say: Seminal emission will


necessitate qada' without kaffarah.  The Imamis observe: It requires both


qada ' and kaffarah.





        4. Vomiting: It invalidates the fast if deliberate, and in the


opinion of the Imamis, Shafi'is and Malikis, also necessitates qada'. The


Hanafis state: Deliberate vomiting does not break the fast unless the


quantity vomited fills the mouth. Two views have been narrated from Imam


Ahmad. The schools concur that involuntary vomiting does not invalidate


the fast.





        5. Cupping (hijamah) is muftir only in the opinion of the


Hanbalis, who observe: The cupper and his patient both break the fast.





        6. Injection (of vitamines or other nutritions) invalidates the


fast and requires qada' in the opinion of all the schools. Imami legists


observe: It also requires kaffarah if taken without an emergency.





        7. Inhaling a dense cloud of suspended dust invalidates the fast


only in the opinion of the Imamis. They say: If a dense suspended dust,


such as flour or something of the kind, enters the body the fast is


rendered invalid, because it is something more substantial than an


injection or tobacco smoke which are also invalidating.





        8. Application of kohl invalidates the fast only in the opinion of


the Malikis, provided it is applied during the day and its taste is felt


in the throat.





        9. The intention to discontinue the fast: If a person intends to


discontinue his fast and then refrains from doing so, his fast is


considered invalid in the opinion of the lmamis and Hanbalis; not so in


the opinion of the other schools.





        10. Most Imamis state: Fully submerging the head, alone or


together with other parts of the body, under water invalidates the fast


and necessitates both qada' and kaffarah. The other schools consider it


inconsequential.





        11. The Imamis observe: A person who deliberately remains in the


state of janabah after the dawn during the month of Ramadan, his fast will


be invalid and its qada' as well as kaffarah will be wajib upon him. The


remaining schools state- His fast remains valid and he is not liable to


anything.





        12. The Imamis observe: A person who deliberately ascribes some-


thing falsely to God or the Messenger (S) (i.e. if he speaks or writes


that God or the Messenger said so and so or ordered such and such a thing


while he is aware that it is not true), his fast will be invalid and he


will be liable to its qada' as well as a kaffarah. A group of Imami


legists go further by requiring of such a fabricator the kaffarah of


freeing a slave, fasting for two months, and feeding sixty poor persons.


This shows the ignorance or malice of those who say that the Imamis


consider it permissible to forge lies against God and His Messenger (S).





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                                Fasting,


                According to Five Islamic Schools of Law





                               (Part II)





                 By: 'Allamah Muhammad Jawad Maghniyyah








The Various Kinds of Fasts:





   The legists of various schools classify fasts into four


categories: Wajib, mustahabb (supererogatory), muharram (forbidden),


and makruh (reprehensible).





Obligatory fasts:





   All the schools concur that the wajib fasts are those of the month


of Ramadan, their qada', the expiatory fasts performed as kaffarah, and


those performed for fulfilling a vow. The Imamis add further two, related


to the Hajj and i'tikaf. We have already dealt in some detail with the


fast of Ramadan, its conditions and the things that invalidate it. Here we


intend to discuss its qada' and the kaffarah to which one who breaks it


becomes liable. Other types of obligatory fasts have been discussed under


the related chapters.





Qada' of the Ramadan Fasts:





   1. The schools concur that a person liable to the qada' of Ramadan


fasts is bound to perform it during the same year in which the fasts were


missed by him, i.e. the period between the past and the forth- coming


Ramadan. He is free to choose the days he intends to fast, excepting those


days on which fasting is prohibited (their discussion will soon follow).


However it is wajib upon him to immediately begin their qada' if the days


remaining for the next Ramadan are equal to the number of fasts missed in


the earlier Ramadan.





   2. If one capable of performing the qada' during the year


neglects it until the next Ramadan, he should fast during the current


Ramadan and then perform the qada' of the past year and also give a


kaffarah of one mudd (1) for each day in the opinion of all the schools


except the hanafi which requires him to perform only the qada' without any


kaffarah. And if he is unable to perform the qada' such as when his


illness continues throughout the period between the first and the second


Ramadan -he is neither required to perform its qada' nor required to give


kaffarah in the opinion of the four schools, while the Imamis say: He will


not be liable to qada' but is bound to give a mudd as kaffarah for each


fast day missed.





   3. If one is capable of performing the qada' during the year but


delays it with the intention of performing it just before the second


Ramadan, so that the qada' fasts are immediately followed by the next


Ramadan, and then a legitimate excuse prevents him from performing the


qada' before the arrival of Ramadan, in such a situation he will be liable


only to qada' not to kaffarah.





   4. One who breaks a Ramadan fast due to an excuse, and is capable


of later performing its qada' but fails to perform the qada' during his


lifetime, the Imamis observe: It is wajib upon his eldest child to perform


the qada' on his behalf. The Hanafis, Shafi'is, and Hanbalis state: A


sadaqah of a mudd for each fast missed will be given on his behalf.


According to the Malikis, his legal guardian (wali) will give sadaqah on


his behalf if he has so provided in the will: in the absence of a will it


is not wajib.





   5. In the opinion of the four schools, a person performing the


qada' of Ramadan can change his intention and break the fast both before


and after midday without being liable to any kaffarah provided there is


time for him to perform the qada' later.





   The Imamis observe: It is permissible for him to break this fast


before midday and not later, because continuation of the fast become


compulsory after the passing of the major part of its duration and the


time of altering the niyyah also expires. Hence if he acts contrarily and


breaks the fast after midday, he is liable to kaffarah by giving food to


ten poor persons; if he is incapable of doing that, he will fast for three


days








Fasts of Atonement (kaffarah):





   The fasts of atonement are of various kinds. Among them are


atonement fasts for involuntary homicide, fasts for atonement of a broken


oath or vow, and atonement fasts for zihar. These atonement fasts have


their own rules which are discussed in the related chapters. Here we shall


discuss the rules applicable to a person fasting by way of kaffarah for


not having observed the fast of Ramadan. The Shafi'is, Malikis and Hanafis


say: It is not permissible for a person upon whom fasting for two


consecutive months has become wajib consequent to deliberately breaking a


Ramadan fast to miss even a single fast during these two months, because


that would break their continuity. Hence, on his missing a fast, with or


without an excuse, he should fast anew for two months.





   The Hanbalis observe: If he misses a fast due to a legitimate


excuse, the continuity is not broken.





   The Imamis state: It is sufficient for the materialization of


continuity that he fast for a full month and then a day of the next month.


After that he can skip days and then continue from where he had left. But


if he misses a fast during the first month without any excuse, he is bound


to start anew; but if it is due to a lawful excuse, such as illness or


menstruation, the continuity is not broken and he/she will wait till the


excuse is removed and then resume the fasts. The Imamis further observe:


One who is unable to fast for two months, or release a slave or feed sixty


poor persons, has the option either to fast for 18 days or give whatever


he can as sadaqah. If even this is not possible, he may give alms or fast


to any extent possible. If none of these are possible, he should seek


forgiveness from God Almighty .





   The Shafi'is, Malikis and Hanafis state: If a person is unable to


offer any form of kaffarah, he will remain liable for it until he comes to


possess the capacity to offer it, and this is what the rules of the


Shari'ah require .





   The Hanbalis are of the opinion that if he is unable to give


kaffarah, his liability for the same disappears, and even in the event of


his becoming capable of it later, he will not be liable to anything. The


schools concur that the number of kaffarahs will be equal to the number of


causes entailing it. Hence a person who breaks two fasts will have to give


two kaffarahs. But if he eats, drinks or has sexual intercourse several


times in a single day, the Hanafis, Malikis and Shafi'is observe: The


number of kaffarahs will not increase if iftar occurs several times,


irrespective of its manner. The Hanbalis state: If in a single day there


occur several violations entailing kaffarah, if the person gives kaffarah


for the first violation of the fast before the perpetration of the second,


he should offer kaffarah for the latter violation as well, but if he has


not given kaffarah for the first violation before committing the second, a


single kaffarah suffices. According to the Imamis, if sexual intercourse


is repeated a number of times in a single day, the number of kaffarahs


will also increase proportionately, but if a person eats or drinks a


number of times in a single day, one kaffara will suffice.








Prohibited Fasts:





   All the schools except the Hanafi concur that fasting on the days


of 'Id al-Fitr and 'Id al-'Adha is prohibited (haram). The Hanafis


observe: Fasting on these two 'Ids is makruh to the extent of being haram





   The Imamis say: Fasting on the days of Tashriq is prohibited only


for those who are at Mina. The days of Tashriq are the eleventh, twelfth


and thirteenth of Dhu al-Hijjah.





   The Shafi'is are of the opinion that fasting is not valid on the


days of Tashriq both for those performing Hajj as well as others.


According to the Hanbalis, it is haram to fast on these days for those who


do


not perform Hajj, not for those performing it. The Hanafis observe: Fasting


on these days is makruh to the extent of being haram.





   The Malikis state: It is haram to fast on the eleventh and the


twelfth of Dhu al-Hujah for those who do not perform Hajj, not for those


performing it.





   All the schools excepting the Hanafi concur that it is not valid


for a woman to observe a supererogatory fast without her husband's consent


if her fast interferes with the fulfillment of any of his rights. The


Hanafis observe: A woman's fasting without the permission of her husband


is makruh, not haram.





The Doubtful Days:





   There is consensus among the schools that imsak is obligatory upon


one who does not fast on a "doubtful day" ( yawm al-shakk) that later


turns out to be a day of Ramadan, and he is liable to qada' later.





   Where one fasts on a doubtful day that is later known to have been


a day of Ramadan, they differ as to whether it suffices without requiring


qada'.





   The Shafi'i, Maliki and Hanbali schools observe: This fast will


not suffice and its qada' is wajib upon him. In the opinion of the


Hanafis, it suffices and does not require qada '.





   Most Imamis state: Its qada' is not wajib upon him, except when he


had fasted with the niyyah of Ramadan.





Supererogatory Fasts:





   Fasting is considered mustahabb on all the days of the year except


those on which it has been prohibited. But there are days whose fast has


been specifically stressed and they include three days of each month,


preferably the 'moonlit' days (al-'ayyam al-bid), which are the


thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of each lunar month. Among them is


the day of 'Arafah (9th of Dhu al-Hijjah) Also emphasized are the fasts of


the months of Rajab and Sha'ban. Fasting on Mondays and Thursdays has also


been emphasized. There are other days as well which have been mentioned in


elaborate works. There is consensus among all the schools that fasting on


these days is mustahab.





Reprehensible (Makruh) Fasts:





   It is mentioned in al-Fiqh 'ala al-madhahib al-'arba'ah that it is


makruh to single out Fridays and Saturdays for fasting. So is fasting on


the day of Now Ruz (21st March) in the opinion of all the schools except


the Shafi'i, and fasting on the day or the two days just before the month


of Ramadan.





   It has been stated in Imami books on fiqh that it is makruh for a


guest to fast without the permission of his host, for a child to fast


without the permission of its father, and when there is doubt regarding


the new moon of Dhu al-Hijjah and the consequent possibility of the day


being that of 'Id.





Evidence of the New Moon:





   There is a general consensus among Muslims that a person who has


seen the new moon is himself bound to act in accordance with his


knowledge, whether it is the new moon of Ramadan or Shawwal. Hence it is


wajib upon one who has seen the former to fast even if all other people


don't (2), and to refrain from fasting on seeing the latter even if


everyone


else on the earth is fasting, irrespective of whether the observer is


'adil or not, man or woman. The schools differ regarding the following


issues:





   1. The Hanbalis, Malikis and Hanafis state: If the sighting


(ru'yah) of the new moon has been confirmed in a particular region, the


people of all other regions are bound by it regardless of the distance


between them; the difference of the horizon of the new moon is of no


consequence.





   The Imamis and the Shafi'is observe: If the people of a particular


place see the new moon while those at another place don't, in the event of


these two places being closeby with respect to the horizon, the latter's


duty will be the same; but not if their horizons differ.





   2. If the new moon is seen during day, either before or after mid-


day, on 30th Sha'ban, will it be reckoned the last day of Sha'ban (in


which case, fasting on it will not be wajib) or the first of Ramadan (in


which case fasting is wajib)? Similarly, if the new moon is seen during


the day on the 30th of Ramadan, will it be reckoned a day of Ramadan or


that of Shawwal? In other words, will the day on which the new moon is


observed be reckoned as belonging to the past or to the forth- coming


month?





   The Imamis, Shafi'is, Malikis and Hanafis observe: It belongs to


the past month and not to the forthcoming one. Accordingly, it is wajib to


fast on the next day if the new moon is seen at the end of Sha'ban, and to


refrain from fasting the next day if it is seen at the end of Ramadan.





   3. The schools concur that the new moon is confirmed if sighted,


as observed in this tradition of the Prophet (S) ('Fast on seeing the new


moon and stop fasting on seeing it'). They differ regarding the other


methods of confirming it. The Imamis observe: It is confirmed for both


Ramadan and Shawwal by tawatur (i.e. the testimony of a sufficiently large


number of people whose conspiring over a false claim is impossible), and


by the testimony of two just men, irrespective of whether the sky is


clear or cloudy and regardless of whether they belong to the same or two


different nearby towns, provided their descriptions of the new moon are


not contradictory. The evidence of children, fasiq men and those of


unknown character is not acceptable.





   The Hanafis differentiate between the new moons of Ramadan and


Shawwal; they state: The new moon of Ramadan is confirmed by the testimony


of a single man and a single woman, provided they are Muslim, sane and


'adil (just). The Shawwal new moon is not confirmed except by the testimony


of two men or a man and two women. This is when the sky is not clear. But


if the sky is clear -and there is no difference in this respect between the


new moon of Ramadan and Shawwal -it is not confirmed except by the


testimony of a considerable number of persons whose reports result in


certainty. In the opinion of the Shafi'is, the new moon of Ramadan and


Shawwal is confirmed by the testimony of a single witness provided he is


Muslim, sane, and 'adil. The sky's being clear or cloudy makes no


difference in this regard.





   According to the Malikis, the new moon of Ramadan and Shawwal is


not confirmed except by the testimony of two 'adil men, irrespective of


the sky's being cloudy or cloudless. The Hanbalis say: The new moon of


Ramadan is confirmed by the testimony of an 'adil man or woman, while that


of Shawwal is only confirmed by the testimony of two 'adil men.





   4. There is consensus among the schools, excepting the Hanafi,


that if no one claims to have seen the new moon of Ramadan, fasting will


be wajib after the thirtieth day allowing thirty days for Sha'ban.





   According to the Hanafis, fasting becomes wajib after the twenty-


ninth day of Sha'ban.





   This was with respect to the new moon of Ramadan. As to the new


moon of Shawwal, the Hanafis and the Malikis observe: If the sky is


cloudy, thirty days of Ramadan will be completed and iftar will be wajib


on the following day. But if the sky is clear, it is wajib to fast on the


day following the thirtieth day by rejecting the earlier testimony of


witnesses confirming the first of Ramadan regardless of their number.





   The Shafi'is consider iftar as wajib after thirty days even if the


setting in of Ramadan was confirmed by the evidence of a single witness,


irrespective of the sky's having been cloudy or clear.





   According to the Hanbalis, if the setting in of Ramadan was con-


firmed by the testimony of two 'adil men, iftar following the thirtieth


day is wajib, and if it was confirmed by the evidence of a single 'adl, it


is wajib to fast on the thirty-first day as well. In the opinion of the


Imamis, both Ramadan and Shawwal are confirmed after the completion of


thirty days regardless of the sky's being cloudy or clear, provided their


beginning was confirmed in a manner approved by the Shari'ah.





_________


FOOTNOTES:





(1) Approximately 800 grams of wheat or something similar to it.





(2) But the Hanafis observe: If he testifies before a qadi who rejects his


testimony, it is wajib upon him to perform its qada' without liability to


kaffarah (al-Fiqh 'ala al-madhahib al-'arba'ah).


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